Omega 3 Fatty Acid Levels and the Risk of Prostate Cancer

A recent well publicized research study known as “The SELECT Trail” showed that Vitamin E supplementation increased the risk of Prostate Cancer compared with placebo (NEJM JW Gen Med Oct 25 2011)  Researchers have now used data from that study analyzed separately now claims that individuals with a higher level of omega 3 fatty acids are at a higher risk of developing high grade prostate cancer. The results were published in the Am J Epidemiol 2011; 173:1429.

This was a case – control study in which researchers looked at the plasma omega 3 fatty acid levels in stored blood collected at the beginning of the SELECT trial. They compared the levels in 834 men with prostate cancer and 1393 controls without the disease.  The design of the study does not allow one to conclude that if you ingest omega 3 fatty acid supplements you will develop prostate cancer. The study just noted that individuals with prostate cancer as compared to men without had higher plasma levels of omega 3 fatty acids in their blood.

This particular study raised a great deal of media attention and concern especially with the American College of Cardiology advocating supplementation with fish oils for cardiac protection in recent years. This recommendation came despite two recent studies that indicated just the opposite ( NEJM JW Gen Med May 8 2013, and JAMA 2012; 308: 1024).   It is clear from this controversy that the exact role of omega 3 fatty acids, fish oils, omega 6 fatty acids and vegetable oils is still up for debate. I will advise my patients to eat fish in moderation consuming 1-2 fish meals per week if they enjoy fish.  Eating in moderation and allowing our bodies to use the nutrients they need seems to be the wisest course until more is known.