The indication to take aspirin to prevent various diseases has certainly been confusing over the last few years. A Veterans Administration (VA) study in the 1950’s noted that men over 45 years of age who took an aspirin per day had fewer heart attacks and strokes. The exact dosage of aspirin to take to prevent heart attacks and strokes has been the subject of many studies and much disagreement. In more recent times researchers have questioned whether aspirin should only be taken by those individuals who already have survived a heart attack or stroke for secondary prevention.
Taking aspirin is not risk free with users having a higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and cerebral hemorrhage especially if head trauma was involved. Recent studies have made it even more confusing with some experts not wanting patients to take aspirin for primary prevention of a first heart attack or stroke unless their 10 year risk of an event was 6% or greater. Others thought 6% was too high a figure and suggested 3%. The guidelines and suggestions for aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease have certainly become more confusing and have made the decision to use it far more complicated.
As a result of the use of aspirin in prevention of vascular and heart disease, researchers noted that people who took aspirin had fewer pre-cancerous adenomatous colon polyps and less skin cancer. In a 2010 study in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Drs. Michelle Holmes and Wendy Chen of the Harvard Medical School noticed that women with breast cancer who took one aspirin per week had a 50% lower chance of dying from breast cancer. This observational study required a more detailed sophisticated double blind study to prove the point but the authors did not receive the necessary funding to begin the research study. This left the relationship between aspirin use and breast cancer development very unclear.
In the December 22, 2015 edition of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Bardia A, Keenan TE, and Ebbert JO and associates published data hinting that aspirin use was associated with a lower incidence of breast cancer for women with a history of breast cancer and those with a personal history of benign breast disease. This study of 26,580 postmenopausal women followed the study participants for three years. In the online journal Internal Medicine News, Neil Skolnik, MD talked about the exciting possibility of decreasing breast cancer in this specific group of women by 30 – 40% by taking a daily aspirin.
There is no question that aspirin therapy increases the risk of bleeding especially in the GI tract and the brain. Trauma and cuts will lead to increased bleeding and blood loss. Individuals will need to discuss with their physician the pros and cons of preventive aspirin therapy for heart disease prevention, skin cancer prevention, colon cancer prevention and now breast cancer prevention based on their personal and family medical history and balance it with the risk of bleeding.
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