Zika is an infectious virus introduced to Florida by individuals who traveled to South and Central America plus the Caribbean Islands and were infected by the bite of an aegypti mosquito or a close relative of that mosquito. They then brought the infection back to the USA. The disease has an incubation period of less than two weeks and generally produces a mild illness that most adults do not even know they have. Fever, aches and pains, a fleeting rash, headache and conjunctivitis are common symptoms. Once infected the disease can be transmitted from human to human by body fluids during sexual activity. It can additionally be transmitted when an infected individual is bitten by a mosquito and then it bites a human being. Fortunately the mosquitoes have a flight range of about 100 yards. It is the mobility of infected human beings causing the geographical spread of the virus more than mosquitoes. The virus infects a male’s semen and can remain infectious for about six months. This has led to the suggestion that infected men use condoms when having sex for six months post infection.
The disease is mild in adults but the body’s response to infection has produced a neurological ascending paralysis known as Guillan Barre Syndrome (GBS) at three times the expected rate of this diseases occurrence. GBS is painful and can affect our respiratory muscles necessitating the use of mechanical respirators and ICU care for survival. The disease is most dangerous in pregnant women causing permanent brain and developmental damage and death in developing fetuses.
At the current time treatment is supportive. There are lab tests to detect an infection using blood and urine specimens. A vaccine to prevent infection is under development with early success noted in rhesus monkeys. Prevention at this point involves practicing safe sex, avoiding mosquito bites using repellant and appropriate clothing. The mosquito spreading Zika bites during daylight hours. Spraying to reduce the mosquito population is an ongoing strategy being hampered by poor funding. An experimental project to introduce sterile genetically engineered female mosquitoes is being hampered by lack of funding and citizen concern about potential dangers of releasing mutated mosquitoes.
President Obama asked Congress last spring for 1.9 billion dollars to fight Zika but Congress adjourned without providing any funds. The CDC used other funds to begin the research and fight against Zika but is rapidly running out of funds.