On a regular basis I see patients miserable with symptoms from a viral upper respiratory tract infection or common cold. They run fevers, are chilled, ache all over, have painful burning throats, runny noses, sinus congestion and just feel miserable. Our therapeutic options include only rest, warm fluids, throat lozenges, cough medicines and aspirin type medications. Antibiotics do not work against viral illnesses.
Researchers at Emory University have developed a vaccine for the common cold. It contains 50- 100 of inactivated Rhinoviruses. Rhinoviruses cause 60-80% of our common colds. Rhinovirus is the most common pathogen exacerbating infections in patients with asthma and emphysema.
The initial work on this vaccine began 60 years ago but the sheer number of different Rhinoviruses, coupled with the limited technology of that time period, prevented progress. With today’s technology researchers have been able to administer 50 or more inactivated Rhinovirus variants to mice and monkeys producing neutralizing antibodies and preventing these infections. Human trials are scheduled to begin shortly with the expectation that a vaccine may be available in two years. The initial recipients will be high risk patients with COPD and asthma but all others will be able to receive the vaccine as well. They believe the immunity will last for two years and then a booster will be required.
There is a new vaccine for influenza prevention in adults 65 years or older being produced which will cover all four of the common viral influenza variants. Currently Fluzone is the senior high dose vaccine recommended to prevent the three most common A viruses. There is a B1 virus seen in the spring that is not in that product. Younger adults receive a Quadrivalent flu vaccine that includes the B1 virus. Within the last four weeks Flublok has been approved by the FDA and released as a high dose vaccine which contains the three A viruses in inactivated form plus the B virus. It will be the vaccine of choice in the 2017 fall flu season. This new vaccine was produced with new DNA technology which allows it to be egg free and received by individuals allergic to egg products. Most other vaccines are grown in egg cultures and individuals with egg sensitivity cannot receive them.
Researchers in the United States and Australia have developed a vaccine to prevent and treat early and late Alzheimer’s disease. It targets the proteins found in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease in the early and late stages. The vaccine has met with success in early animal studies and is beginning formal Phase I studies this winter. They believe this vaccine can reverse some of the symptoms seen with the disease. While the early results are encouraging, this product is a minimum of seven to eight years from being available as a commercial product.