New Approaches to Early Prostate Cancer

Men today diagnosed with early prostate cancer, Gleason Stage 7 or less, have the option of a new arm of care called watchful waiting. With periodic PSA blood tests, prostate biopsies and imaging studies; urologists and oncologists can follow the patient with disease felt to be not aggressive rather than radiate the lesion or surgically remove it as was done in the past. In some cases, they can watch it even closer with an approach called Active Surveillance. This week a new research treatment was made public.

MedPage Today published work by Steve Raman, M.D., of the UCLA Medical Center on his TULSA-PRO ablation clinical trial. One hundred-fifteen men with localized and low, or intermediate, risk prostate cancer underwent ultrasound blasting of the cancer using the MRI imaging equipment to direct the therapy. In his study, prostate volume decreased from 39 cubic centimeters before treatment down to 3.8 cubic centimeters after a year. Clinically significant cancer was eliminated in 80% of the study participants and 65% had no evidence of cancer after biopsy at one year. PSA blood levels decreased by 95%. The side effects were minimal with low rates of incontinence and impotence and few bowel complications.

The study leader noted that if prostate cancer reoccurred then the modalities of repeat ultrasound treatment, surgery or radiation were still possible. In August 2019, the FDA approved the TULSA-PRO Device for use. The procedure involves placing a rod-shaped device into the urethra. The device has ten ultrasound probes which are controlled by a computer program while the patient is observed in an MRI machine. The probes shoot out sound waves that heat and destroy the tissue the sound is directed at. The procedure is an outpatient procedure which can also be used to shrink a non-cancerous enlarged prostate from benign prostatic hypertrophy.

Natural Substances That Work

In an article published in the pharmaceutical journal MPR, pharmacist Cassandra Pardini, compares the use of melatonin to provide sleep to hospitalized patients taking sleep medicine zolpidem (brand name is Ambien). The patients were hospital inpatients over 18 years of age who were unaware whether they were receiving melatonin or zolpidem to sleep. These patients completed a questionnaire using the Verran and Snyder-Halpem sleep scale to respond.

There were a total of 100 patients included in the study which showed that the favorable sleep effects of melatonin were as effective as the favorable sleep effects of the zolpidem. Both sleep aids were well tolerated and there were few, if any, adverse effects such as morning grogginess or headaches.

The authors concluded that melatonin may be a better choice for inpatient sleep aid because of the lower profile for serious adverse effects. Further studies looking at dosages and drug interactions are in the planning stages.

The same periodical presented a review of the scent Lavender used to reduce anxiety. The authors performed a literature review of all the published studies on the subject. There are over 65 randomized controlled studies and 25 non -randomized studies.

When lavender was used in an inhalation method, they found a general decline in reported anxiety. The inhalation method did not lower systolic blood pressure which is felt to be a physiological marker of anxiety. When the lavender was administered as an oil preparation (Silexan 80 mg per day), for at least six weeks, there was a reduction in anxiety as measured by an accepted Anxiety scale. In a smaller study, lavender administered by massage had a positive effect as well.

There were few if any adverse effects in these studies. Clearly lavender does reduce anxiety in subsets of patients and should be considered as part of our treatment options.

Dog Ownership & Staying Alive

An article published in the Journal of Circulation and Cardiovascular Outcomes in October 2019 looked at the effect of owning a dog on survival and mortality. The authors looked at research studies, published between 1950 and May 2019, that evaluated dog ownership with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular related deaths – including almost 4 million patients and 515 events.

Dog ownership was associated with a 24% risk reduction for all- cause mortality when compared to non-ownership with six of the studies showing a significant reduction in the risk of death. Those individuals who previously had a cardiovascular event (MI, heart attack, etc.) had an even more pronounced reduction in the risk of death of all causes.

When they just looked at the issue of cardiovascular death risk in dog owners who had a previous cardiac event, the risk reduction for cardiovascular death was 31%.  The reviewers concluded that, “dog ownership is associated with lower risk of death over the long-term, which is possibly driven by a reduction in cardiovascular mortality.”

My wife and I lost our treasured Pug of 15 years, “Pug Sly”, and his sweet mix-breed partner “Chloe” two years ago.  Losing these two just one year apart was like losing beloved family.

So, we adopted a rescue Pug and then a young pup who had been returned to its breeder.  At our first dog checkup with the new pets and our vet, my wife expressed concern that at our age the dogs might out-live us. Our vet told us that if that were to occur, and no family members wanted the dogs, he and his family would adopt them and care for them. He said that is common in many practices and they encourage senior citizens who can provide a loving and caring home to not worry about that aspect of continued care and adopting a dog.

While there is no data on this topic, I suspect pet ownership of cats and birds and other domestic animals requiring care and love confers similar benefits.

Environmental Pollution Linked to Decreasing Lifespan and Increased Deaths

Worsening air pollution is killing more people at a younger age. We read on a daily basis about a White House sponsored movement back to the use of coal for fuel. At the same time, rules and regulations designed to keep our air and water clean are being relaxed by Administration appointees to the Environmental Protection Agency.

Instead of protecting the environment so that future generations have clean air to breathe, and water to drink, we see rule after rule put in place to protect our countries environment scraped by officials who cite economic profit and jobs over environmental concerns for future generations. When the discussion gets heated, officials cite the fact that even if we use clean energy, developing countries like China and India and third world nations produce enough environmental pollution to offset our best efforts.  The rhetoric goes back and forth between advocates for developing and exporting clean energy (solar, wind, natural gas and nuclear) versus coal products. But, what do the facts say?

A recent study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association Open Network directly linked air pollution and its contribution of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere with an increased burden of death from several causes. The researchers followed 4,522,160 military veterans in the USA from 2006 to 2016 and linked their exposure to increased particulate matter or pollution to increased deaths from nine causes including:

  1. Heart Disease
  2. Cerebrovascular Disease
  3. Chronic Kidney Disease
  4. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  5. Dementia
  6. Type II Diabetes Mellitus
  7. Hypertension
  8. Lung Cancer
  9. Pneumonia

The increased death rate was more noticeable in persons of color living in poor socioeconomic communities. The causes of death were in no way related to accidents.

The concentration of pollutants the study population was exposed to was actually lower than the new relaxed standards the current Environmental Protection Agency has approved. Last month a similar study was presented at a worldwide meeting of the World Health Organization.

The message is quite clear.  Unless we want to see a rising death toll due to air pollution, we need to improve the air quality and ask for more stringent standards. At the same time, the USA needs to support the development of clean fuel and energy sources that we can export to developing countries so that their reliance on coal and polluting sources diminishes.

We need to do what we can to control the issue rather than continuing policies that increase the deaths of our citizens in the name of profits.

Cholesterol Lowering Statin Drugs DO NOT Encourage Cognitive Decline

Statin drugs are used to lower cholesterol levels in the hope of preventing vascular disease including heart disease, strokes, peripheral arterial vascular disease. They have been safely prescribed to millions of people for years showing great effectiveness.  However, a cloud hangs over them over side effects glorified in the lay media and on the internet.  Oftentimes patients don’t even fill their prescriptions due to their concerns. One of the myths is that statins lead to a premature decline in cognitive function and dementia.

This concern was addressed in the Journal of American College of Cardiology highlighting a study authored by Katherine Samaras, MBBS, PhD of St. Vincents Hospital in Sydney Australia.  They looked at adults aged 70 – 90 over a period of seven years.  Over 1,000 subjects in the study included individuals who did not take statins, individuals who were already using statins and individuals who were started on statins during the study period. The subjects first took a standard mini mental status test which allowed them to exclude anyone already showing signs of dementia. They then did state of the art cognitive testing and memory testing on the subjects over a seven-year period.

They found that there was no difference in the rate of decline of memory or intellectual function between statin users and non-users.  In a small subgroup of patients, they used imaging techniques to look at the brain volume comparing it over time between statin users and non-users. They found that users had more brain volume at the six-year mark than non-users.  They found that users with heart disease who took statins had a slower rate of decline of learning memory than non-users.  This also included users and non-users who have the APOE-4 genotype associated with cognitive decline.

While statins may not be a perfect class of drug, the study clearly demonstrated that the idea that they encourage cognitive decline and dementia at an accelerated rate is completely false.

Medicare Advantage – Great Insurance If You Are Healthy

It is open enrollment period through December 7, 2019 for those of us 65 years of age and older who are supposed to sign on to www.medicare.gov to choose our 2020 prescription drug plan Part D. This is also the open enrollment period for insurance owned and operated by private managed care Medicare Advantage programs. These plans preceded ObamaCare, or the Affordable Care Act, and are private managed care plans. They were designed to save the government money but, in fact, year after year are more costly per patient than traditional Medicare.

Let me repeat that, according to government auditors, MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PLANS COST MORE PER PATIENT PER YEAR THAN TRADITIONAL MEDICARE! If you sign up for one you will need to abide by the managed care company’s contracted panel of doctors and facilities. You do not get to choose the best doctor or hospital for your problem – just the best on your contracted panel. These insurers tell you it’s the same as Medicare but it is not. They will provide you with an insurance ID card colored and lettered to mimic Medicare but it is not Medicare.

It is great for healthy patients until they get sick. There are few, if any, monthly costs to enrollees. Generic drugs, inexpensive vision care, inexpensive hearing and dental care are often included. If you develop a complicated health problem and want to see the best it is usually OUT OF NETWORK. If you get sick out of your home area you may well be OUT OF NETWORK. These plans are immensely profitable to insurers.

They are so profitable that seniors are bombarded with mail advertising, full page newspaper advertising and constant prime time TV advertising using celebrity spokespersons. The ads encourage seniors to travel and fund their grandchildren with the savings they will reap from joining their plan.

They don’t explain what happens when mom has a new lymphoma and cannot go to MD Anderson or Memorial Hospital or Dana Farber for diagnosis and cutting-edge care. They don’t tell you about the experience of your contracted panel doctor to treat Grandpa’s throbbing headache caused by a brain vascular malformation because the regional neuro vascular interventionalist of choice is not on grandpa’s panel.

I have an idea. How about putting the cost of all the expensive enrollment advertising done by these private Medicare Advantage plans in to better benefits for their clients?  We all know the answer to that.

Changes in Florida’s Prescribing Medication Laws

In their ultimate wisdom, the Florida Legislature has decided that all medication prescribing shall be done electronically by computer beginning in January 2020.  As of November 1st, the Florida Medical Association has not informed its members of this but it was discussed briefly at a hospital staff meeting.

We were told that most pharmacies will no longer honor paper written prescriptions.  My office electronic health record system, which slows down seeing patients remarkably, has had electronic prescribing software which we have used for several years now.  The big change is that we will now be required to order controlled substances online electronically when in the past it was not permitted.

Since the opioid crisis struck Florida, physicians have been required to create an account with the State’s narcotics hotline named E-Forsce and check out the recipient prior to prescribing controlled substances for pain.  We then issued a written prescription.

It never made sense to me why if one is trying to track narcotic prescribing it wasn’t being done on computers from the beginning?  Nonetheless, this is a change which will require prescribers to download additional software and use two methods of identification as the legitimate prescriber before you can actually prescribe for your patients.

It will give you the freedom to prescribe from your phone or tablet when out of your office which is a convenience not available in the last few years. It will however mean more time in front of the computer screen, more user names and passwords to remember and less time actually listening, talking and communicating with patients.