Artificially Sweetened Beverages, Stroke and Dementia Risk

An observational study in the Journal “ Stroke, A Journal of Cerebral Circulation” examined the question of whether there is an a relationship between consuming “ diet” beverages with artificial sweeteners and the development of a stroke or dementia using data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort. They looked at 2888 individuals older than 45 years of age for the development of strokes and 1484 participants over age 60 for the development of dementia. They followed the group for ten years and were able to gauge their intake of artificially sweetened beverages from food questionnaires filled out at exams. After making adjustments for age, sex, education, caloric intake, diet quality, physical activity, and smoking they found that higher consumption of artificially sweetened beverages was associated with a higher risk of strokes and dementia. This was not seen in individuals drinking sugar sweetened beverages.

In a comment section, the author acknowledged that diabetic patients had a higher risk of stroke and dementia than the general public and they consumed more artificially sweetened beverages than others. While the study did not show cause and effect it does leave us wondering just how safe these diet drinks are?

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The Artificial Sweetener Conundrum

Years ago I attended a Weight Watchers meeting in Brooklyn, NY with the lecturer being their public founder Jean Nidetch. She joked about her sugar free gum, sugar free soda and sugar free snacks contributing to “artificial diabetes.” She drew a big laugh but little did she know her comedy may have a ring of the truth to it.

Researchers have now published reputable data that drinking a diet soda daily greatly increases your chances of having a stroke or developing dementia. In an observational study, researchers using data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort noticed that individuals who drank diet soda and used artificial sweeteners were at an increased risk of ischemic stroke and all cause dementia when compared to individuals of similar age and risk factor stratification that did not use artificial sweeteners. Their data was published in the neurology journal Stroke. This is an observational study which cannot show cause and effect but uses the analogy and theory “where you see smoke there is fire”.

In an unrelated study, researchers looking at how we metabolize sugars noted that consuming artificial sweeteners may lead to larger food and beverage intake and ultimate weight gain. The data was not much better when they looked at individuals who consumed real sugar in sugary drinks. They noted that sugary drinks accelerated the process of aging in cells. This was somewhat in conflict with the original study referenced in which consumption of sugary beverages did not appear to have an association with stroke or dementia.

Clearly the data is confusing as to what to do. Once again moderation with diets with controlled portion size, limited chemical and antibiotic exposure and; rich in vegetables as well as fruits and nuts with a high quality protein seems to be the direction to go. No matter who studies the Mediterranean type diet the results are favorable.

Once again I lobby for nutritional training in the elementary, middle and high schools with healthy cooking and preparation classes as a sound investment for a healthier population in the future. The classes should go as far as teaching students how to create their own gardens and grow some fruits and vegetables on their own for home consumption. We may not be able to impact the adult population in mass but at least let’s give the children a chance.